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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS?

Diabetes mellitus (commonly referred to as diabetes) is a condition where the blood sugar levels are very high, either because of lack of insulin (a hormone secreted by the pancreas) or because of the inability of body cells to use it effectively.

Diabetes

TYPES OF DIABETES

 Type 1 diabetes: is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to work regularly.

Type 2 diabetes: causes are normally multi-factorial (i.e. many factors are involved). Frequently, the most overpowering element is a family history of Type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes: It is activated by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes (pregnancy, to some degree, prompts to insulin resistance). It is regularly looked for in middle or late pregnancy. Since high glucose levels in a mother are coursed through the placenta to the child, gestational diabetes must be controlled to secure the child’s development.

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? (COMPLICATIONS & RISKS)

For 2 reasons:

1.    Uncontrolled diabetes can cause:

  • Heart diseases like Heart attack
  • Paralysis (Stroke or CVA)
  • Vision loss
  • Kidney damage
  • Weak immune system (defence mechanism)
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Pain and Paresthesias in legs (due to PAD)
  • Memory loss
  • Fungal infections
  • Sensory loss in feet/hands
  • Loss of power (difficulty in fine movements)
  • Deformed joints

2.    The body cannot utilize Glucose (the natural fuel) and burns other tissues for energy, producing harmful substances (eg ketones).

 How do I know whether I have Diabetes? (Symptoms & Signs)

As with high blood pressure, Diabetes generally goes unrecognized, unless blood sugar levels are very high or rise over a very short period of time, in which case, it may cause:

  • Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
  • Polyuria (excessive urine)
  • Polyphagia (excessive hunger)
  • Excessive weight loss (despite overeating)
  • Non-healing wounds
  • Recurrent infectious diseases

So, it is advisable to measure your blood sugar levels at regular intervals.

The following factors may increase your chance of getting diabetes:

  • Family history of diabetes
  • Being overweight (20 percent or more over your coveted body weight)
  • Sedentary life style
  • Physical stress (for eg. surgery or illness)
  • Use of specific pharmaceuticals (including steroids, diuretics etc)
  • Injury to pancreas (for eg. disease, tumor, surgery or accident)
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Abnormal blood cholesterol or triglyceride levels
  • Age (chance increments with age)
  • Alcohol (chance increments with years of heavy alcohol use)
  • Smoking
  • Pregnancy

It is important to note that sugar itself does not cause diabetes. Eating a lot of sugar can lead to tooth decay, but it does not cause diabetes.

 Facilities available at Harsh hospital for Diabetes:
  • Physician expertise
  • Glucometer
  • Biothesiometer (vibration testing)
  • Hot-cold sensation testing
  • Lab. Tests
  • Ophthalmic evaluation (with appointment)
  • Diabetic crisis (DKA, HHS etc) management
  • Peri-operative care
  • Diabetic foot care